Scroll Top

The skin is a very large, extensive and extremely important organ. In humans, it is 15% of body weight, in the animals up to 24% (12-24%). Performs a number of important functions including protection, regulatory and secretory functions. Constitutes a barrier separating both the body from the environment, and it communicates with it.

  • It is a mechanical protective barrier against environmental factors, physical stimuli, chemical and biological.
  • Regulates the balance of water and electrolyte.
  • Adjusts the internal temperature of the body, among others, ensured by features of the vascular bed and hair coat.
  • Receives sensory stimuli, has touch receptors, temperature, pain and itching receptors.
  • Has secretory function – sebaceous glands, sweat and perfumes.
  • Participates in the synthesis of vitamin D.
  • Produces keratin structure, i.e. hairs / fur and nails / claws.
  • Performs the function of mechanical and chemical barrier against microorganisms, bacteria and fungi.
  • Performs immune function, providing local immunity (Langerhans cells – dendritic cells presenting the antigen).
  • Contains dye cells (melanocytes) – determines the color of skin and hair.

Skin is composed of three basic layers – from the outside:

Epidermis – five layers of epidermis (from the outside: cornified layer, clear/translucent layer, granular layer, spinous layer, basal/germinal layer).


Hypoderm – subcutaneous tissue.

Each of these layers has a fixed functionality, although some of them contained in them structures (e.g. the sweat glands, hair follicles or sebaceous) penetrates the layers. The skin of the ears, lips, eyelids or the pads differs from the structure of the skin covering other parts of the body, eg. Merkel cells are located only in the skin of tips of paws.

The epidermis undergoes constant manufacturing processes and exfoliates any dead cells. Performs a number of important functions, ensures the continuity and integrity of the skin, produces keratin structures, i.e. hairs / fur and nails / claws. In the epidermis are located, among others, pigmentary cells (melanocytes), dendritic cells (Langerhans cells – immune processes) receptors of pressure and pain (Merkel cells) and openings of sebaceous glands, sweat glands, hair follicles and odoriferous glands. The epidermis is covered with a coat of fat and lipid (epidermal emulsion), which is responsible, among others, for the maintenance of an adequate level of acid-base balance of the skin (pH). This layer is also responsible for the hydration of the skin.

Dermis. In this layer, there is a series of functionally specific structures: the sebaceous glands, the sweat glands, scent glands, hair follicles and blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves penetrating the layers of the epidermis and the so-called arrector pili muscle, responsible for “ruffling” of fur. In the dermis are embedded hair and nails. In this layer of the skin are cells of the immune system: macrophages, dendritic cells, basophils, and other cells like fibroblasts affecting, inter alia, proliferation of cells of the stratum corneum or mast cells involved in allergic reactions.

Subcutaneous tissue acts as a support, protects the body against low temperatures and a reserve of energy (mainly fats). It is composed of loose connective tissue (collagen fibers forming a loose network) and adipose tissue (fat droplets filled with the network of collagen fibers).

Skin’s pH:

pH of the skin is acid-base equilibrium (or acidity) at the surface of the stratum corneum which is outermost skin layer. The acidity of the skin is regulated, among others, secretion of skin glands mostly sweat glands. In dogs, sweat secreted by the sweat glands do not participate in the process of thermoregulation as it has a place for humans. Suitable pH of the skin determines the skin’s resistance to bacterial infections, and is a prerequisite for maintaining homeostasis (equilibrium physiological). pH of the skin of dogs and cats is significantly different from the pH of human skin, as it is markedly higher, i.e. more alkaline. While the average pH of the surface of human skin is 5.2 – 5.6, canine pH of the skin ranges from 6.65 to 7.70. The alkaline nature of the animal skin gives much better than in the case of human skin, conditions for pathogenic microorganisms, bacteria and fungi. This is a frequent cause of complications in the form of bacterial and / or fungal infections in the course of some dermatoses. Similarly caused wounds (cuts, bites, etc.) are more susceptible to opportunistic infections complicating them and for this reason, among others, it is necessary to implement special procedures for dealing with wounds.


Coat hair (fur) has the essential protective functions acting as an insulating barrier and has thermoregulatory function as well as participates in the receiving environmental stimuli (receptor function) as well as in sending messages and information to the other animals (behavioral function).

The coat consists of several types of hair. Their occurrence, distribution, length and density varies between breeds of dogs and cats.

In the cover the hair are long, rigid, centrally located, single basic hair surrounded by several shorter basic hairs forming a covering, which are surrounded by dozens of smaller and more delicate and soft hairs forming the so-called undercoat. For some breeds of dogs (German shepherd) basic hair are surrounded by a very large amount of secondary hair, forming dense undercoat, in other breeds (Terriers) short and rough hair prevail, while in boxer’s basic hair are considerably shortened, and the amount of secondary, soft hair is clearly increased what gives the hair of dogs of these breeds specific “soft” character.

The color of the hair depends on the presence of pigmented cells located in the cortex of the hair.


The structure of the unit of coat is hair follicle, which includes a centrally located primary hair, a few (5) surrounding it shorter hairs and a few to a dozen secondary, soft hair. Each hair follicle is supplemented by the sebaceous gland and sweat and arrector pili muscle for tensioning the hair, which is responsible for “ruffling” of hair which has a thermoregulatory and behavioral functions. In dogs, the original hair has its own sebaceous and sweat glands, and arrector pili muscle for tensioning hair. The bellows create clustered follicles (follicle tufts).


The administrator of personal data collected via the website is JM SANTE PHARMA, place of business: Ul. Józefa Piłsudskiego 11 05-510 Konstancin-Jeziorna, address for service: Ul. November 11, 9th 13, 42-500 Będzin, NIP: 1251614007, REGON: 145920490, e-mail address:, hereinafter referred to as the “Administrator”.
Personal data collected by the Administrator via the website are processed in accordance with Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data and repealing Directive 95/46 / EC (General Data Protection Regulation), hereinafter referred to as the GDPR and the Personal Data Protection Act of 10 May 2018.



The administrator processes personal data via the website in the case of:
the user to use the contact form. Personal data is processed on the basis of art. 6 clause 1 lit. f) GDPR as the Administrator’s legitimate interest.
the user subscribes to the Newsletter to send commercial information by electronic means. Personal data are processed after expressing separate consent, pursuant to art. 6 clause 1 lit. a) GDPR.


The administrator processes the following categories of user’s personal data:
First name and last name,
Date of birth,
E-mail adress,
Phone number,


Users’ personal data is stored by the Administrator:
in the event that the basis for data processing is the performance of the contract, as long as it is necessary to perform the contract, and after that time for a period corresponding to the period of limitation of claims. Unless a special provision provides otherwise, the limitation period is six years, and for claims for periodic benefits and claims related to business activity – three years.
in the case when the basis for data processing is consent, as long as the consent is not revoked, and after revoking the consent for a period of time corresponding to the limitation period of claims that may be raised by the Administrator and which may be raised against him. Unless a special provision provides otherwise, the limitation period is six years, and for claims for periodic benefits and claims related to business activity – three years.
When using the website, additional information may be downloaded, in particular: the IP address assigned to the user’s computer or the external IP address of the Internet provider, domain name, type of browser, access time, type of operating system.
Navigation data may also be collected from users, including information about links and links in which they choose to click or other actions taken on the website. The legal basis for this type of activity is the Administrator’s legitimate interest (Article 6 paragraph 1 letter f of the GDPR), consisting in facilitating the use of electronic services and improving the functionality of these services.
Providing personal data by the user is voluntary.
Personal data will also be processed in an automated way in the form of profiling, provided that the user agrees to it pursuant to art. 6 clause 1 lit. a) GDPR. The consequence of profiling will be the assignment of a given profile to a person in order to make decisions about him or to analyze or predict his preferences, behaviors and attitudes.
The administrator takes special care to protect the interests of data subjects, and in particular ensures that the data collected by him are:
processed in accordance with the law,
collected for specified, lawful purposes and not subjected to further processing incompatible with those purposes,
factually correct and adequate in relation to the purposes for which they are processed and stored in a form enabling identification of the persons to whom they relate, no longer than necessary to achieve the purpose of processing.


Users’ personal data is transferred to service providers used by the Administrator when operating the website. Service providers to whom personal data are transferred, depending on contractual arrangements and circumstances, or are subject to the Administrator’s instructions as to the purposes and methods of processing this data (processing entities) or define the purposes and methods of their processing (administrators).
Users’ personal data is only stored in the European Economic Area (EEA).


The data subject has the right to access their personal data and the right to rectify, delete, limit processing, the right to transfer data, the right to object, the right to withdraw consent at any time without affecting the lawfulness of the processing that has been carried out based on consent before its withdrawal.
Legal grounds for user requests:
Access to data – art. 15 GDPR
Correction of data – Art. 16 GDPR.
Deleting data (the so-called right to be forgotten) – art. 17 GDPR.
Restriction of processing – art. 18 GDPR.
Data transfer – art. 20 GDPR.
Opposition – Art. 21 GDPR
Withdrawal of consent – art. 7 item 3 GDPR.
In order to exercise the rights referred to in point 2 you can send an appropriate email to:
In the event of a user having the right under the above rights, the Administrator shall comply with the request or refuse to comply with it immediately, but no later than within one month after receiving it. However, if – due to the complicated nature of the request or the number of requests – the Administrator will not be able to fulfill the request within a month, he will fulfill it within the next two months informing the user in advance within one month of receiving the request – about the intended extension of the deadline and its reasons.
In the event that the processing of personal data violates the provisions of the GDPR, the data subject has the right to lodge a complaint with the President of the Office for Personal Data Protection.


The Administrator’s website uses “cookies”.
The installation of “cookies” is necessary for the proper provision of services on the website. The “cookies” files contain information necessary for the proper functioning of the website, and also provide the opportunity to compile general statistics of website visits.
The site uses types of “cookies”:
The administrator uses his own cookies to better understand the user’s interaction in the content of the page. The files collect information on how the user uses the website, the type of page from which the user was redirected, and the number of visits and the time of the user’s visit to the website. This information does not record specific personal data of the user, but is used to compile statistics on the use of the website.
The user has the right to decide on the access of “cookies” to his computer by first selecting them in his browser window. Detailed information about the possibilities and ways of handling “cookies” are available in the software (web browser) settings.


The administrator uses technical and organizational measures to ensure the protection of processed personal data appropriate to the threats and categories of data protected, and in particular protects the data against disclosure to unauthorized persons, removal by an unauthorized person, processing in violation of applicable laws and change, loss, damage or destruction.
The administrator provides appropriate technical measures to prevent the acquisition and modification by unauthorized persons of personal data sent electronically.
In matters not covered by this Privacy Policy, the provisions of the GDPR and other relevant provisions of Polish law shall apply accordingly.